A hot water heat pump takes heat energy from the outdoor air and transfers it to the stored water in a cylinder. It can also use a ground or water (a river or lake) heat source, but these sources are less common for residential use.
Here is the content list:
Advantages and disadvantages
The energy efficiency of heat pumps for water heating
Heat pump configuration
Advantages of hot water heat pump include:
1) efficient conversion of energy to heat
2) the energy source is always available
3) it can provide energy-efficient heating for large amounts of water for use for space heating (e.g. underfloor), hot tubs, and swimming pools
4) it can be used to boost other water heating systems
5) government subsidies may be available.
Disadvantages of air-to-water hot water heat pumps include:
1) loss of efficiency as temperature decreases below 6–7ºC although some will continue to provide heating in temperatures down to -10–15ºC
2) purchase and installation costs are higher than for standard electric storage cylinder systems
3) space is needed to install the exterior unit
4) penetrations have to be made through the building cladding
5) outdoor units may be noisy
6) less efficient with low water use (1 or 2 person households)
hot water heat pumps are a highly efficient method of water heating and offer the most efficient electricity-based option, as the electricity is used only to move the heat, not to create it. They can have a coefficient of performance (COP) of between 2.0 and 3.0, which means they create two to three times the energy for water heating than they use in electricity to run the pump and fan. Some hot water heat pump include an electrical heating element to supplement the hot water heat pump output in colder conditions.
As noted above, hot water heat pump efficiency, particularly with air-to-water hot water heat pumps, is reduced by low outdoor temperatures.
To enhance efficiency, the hot water heat pump unit could be operated when:
1) outdoor temperatures are warmer (such as during the afternoon), which improves the performance of the system
2) the price of electricity is lower (such as a night-rate tariff)
3) surplus electricity is available from a photovoltaic system that would otherwise be exported to the electricity grid.
When considered throughout the year, the energy efficiency of air-to-water hot water heat pumps is comparable to solar water heating. hot water heat pump is therefore particularly suited to sites with poor solar gain.
hot water heat pumps have a less variable heat source, but with their high set-up costs and ground area required, they are more suitable for multi-residential developments or very cold climates.
There are two different types of hot water heat pump systems:
1) all-in-one integrated systems, which have the heat exchanger and the storage cylinder in a single unit, located outside
2) split systems, which have the heat exchanger set up separately from the storage cylinder. In this case, the cylinder can be either inside or outside.
MICOE has developed a variety of different hot water heat pumps. If you are in the hot water heat pump business, you can consider using our cost-effective products.
First part of solar energy water heater structure is the heat collecting component: The heat collecting component is a heat collection element in the system. It works like the heating element in the electric water heater. Unlike electric water heater or the gas water heater, the solar energy water heater basically uses the radiation energy, thus it is not able to heat the water unless the solar radiation is strong enough. At present, the most common solar collector tube used in the solar powered water heater in Chinese market is all glass evacuated. Solar energy water heart structure is divided into the outer tube and inner tube, the outer wall of the inner tube is coated with a selective absorbing coating. Solar panel collector plate is coated with black chromium absorbing film, and the heat collecting plate is welded by metal tube. Flat plate collector costs slightly higher than evacuated collector. The flat plate collector showed a rising trend in recent years, it especially has unique advantages in high-rise residential balcony type solar energy water heater.
The thermal insulation water tank: The thermal insulation water tank is a hot water storage container. The heated water must be kept in the tank, thus preventing heat loss. The solar energy water heater capacity refers to the water capacity that can be used in the heater, not including the capacity of vacuum tube that cannot be used. For pressure bearing type solar energy water heater, the capacity refers to the medium capacity that can occur heat exchange. The thermal insulation water tank of solar energy water heater is consisted of the liner, insulation layer and the tank shell. The water tank is an important part for water storage, the material strength and corrosion resistance is very important. There are stainless steel, enamel and other materials on the market. The quality of insulation layer materials has a direct relationship with the insulation effect, it is particularly important in the cold season. Thermal insulation is better than polyurethane foaming thermal insulation. The shell is usually made of color steel plate, galvanized plate or stainless steel plate. Water tank insulation requires good insulation effect, corrosion resistance and water clean.
Bracket: Bracket is the supporting shelf for heat collector and heat insulation water tank. It requires firm structure, high stability, resistance to wind and snow, anti-aging and the ability of not getting rusty. Its material is usually stainless steel, aluminum alloy or steel spray.
Connecting pipes: Solar energy water heater which is also called solar powered water heater is a machine that cold water first enters the water storage tank, and then through the collector will the water be heated and then be transferred to the thermal insulation water tank. Heat storage water tank is connected with the indoor cold, hot water pipeline, thus makes the whole system to form a closed loop. To achieve the best working condition, reasonable design, connecting the solar pipeline right is especially important. Solar pipe must do heat preservation processing, to ensure that users can also use solar energy water heater in the cold winter. solar water heater
Control components: General household solar energy water heater needs to be automatically or semi automatically, so the control system is essential. The commonly used controller is automatically water inflow, and stops water influx when being filled with water. It also displays water temperature and water level, and has electricity leakage protection, anti-dry burning function. With the perfect solar energy heater structure, it is commonly accepted by the majority of the houses.
Flat plate solar water heater invention has received a survey after the end of the study period. The primary scope is the same even under uncertainty management and relies on solar hot water heater system allowance. The flat plate solar water heater invention is not perfectly comparable with solar hot water heater system. However it does not include a role for borrowing allowances from future years nor for offsets because of the solar energy nature. Furthermore, although flat plate solar water heater invention generally includes at least a limited role for the auctioning, it provides a price discovery mechanism. There are also some advantages of solar hot water heater system among other benefits even in the lowest bound of expected prices. In fact flat plate solar water heater invention is established during trading preparation at large. And the prices have entered and surpassed the expected price range primarily and that can be attributed to uncertainty. At the same time, the advent of flat plate solar water heater invention and the transition to solar hot water heater system is reasonable to believe that expected prices will be on the increase. Further overestimated observed prices can be expected in advance and the phase would be superseded. Therefore flat plate solar water heater invention includes an expanded set of states with a advanced baseline level.
Meanwhile, solar hot water heater system allowance banking played a vital role in the flat plate solar water heater invention despite restrictions designed to minimize the risks during a hot summer. In fact, solar hot water heater system banked allowances can be accounted for more than twenty percent of allowances after the first year and the emissions never exceeded the rate in two years. This inconsistently observed flat plate solar water heater invention can provide insight into the interpretation of experimental manipulations. Here, residential consumers’ electricity use can be studied and these solar hot water heater system consumers will record their participation in a study of household solar hot water heater system use. The solution is contained in a custom designed vessel that is positioned at the focus of the solar hot water heater system reflector. The steam can be generated within flat plate solar water heater invention and is channeled into the storage module. Under typical operation, the solar hot water heater system temperature is maintained at one hundred and thirty degrees for five minutes. And the duration of time required for a standard cycle is no more than six minutes, which can be monitored at the output of the generation module. What is more, the solar hot water heater system solution temperature is expected to reach the slight thermal point in the end.
An air-source heat pump (ASHP) is a type of all-in-one heat pump that absorbs heat from a colder place and releases it into a warmer place using the same vapor-compression refrigeration process and same external heat exchanger with a fan as used by air conditioners. Unlike an air conditioning unit, however, it is able to both warm and cool buildings and, in some cases, also provide domestic hot water. Then, let’s introduce in detail what are the specific functions of ASHP?
Here is the content list:
What is the operation principle of ASHP?
How does ASHP work in extreme cold conditions?
What is the service life of ASHP?
Air at any temperature above absolute zero contains some energy. An air-source heat pump is a kind of all-in-one heat pump that transfers some of this energy as heat from one place to another, for example between the outside and inside of a building. This can provide space heating and hot water. A single system can be designed to transfer heat in either direction, to heat or cool the interior of the building in winter and summer respectively. For simplicity, the description below focuses on use for interior heating.
The technology is similar to a refrigerator or freezer or air conditioning unit: the different effect is due to the physical location of the different system components. Just as the pipes on the back of a refrigerator become warm as the interior cools, so an ASHP warms the inside of a building whilst cooling the outside air.
The main components of an air source heat pump are:
1. An outdoor heat exchanger coil, which transfer extracts heat from ambient air
2. An indoor heat exchanger coil, which transfers the heat into hot air ducts, an indoor heating system such as water-filled radiators or underfloor circuits, and a domestic hot water tank.
Air source heat pumps can provide fairly low-cost space heating. The high-efficiency heat pump can provide up to four times as much heat as an electric resistance heater using the same amount of electricity. The lifetime cost of an air source heat pump will be affected by the price of electricity compared to gas (where available). Burning gas or oil will emit carbon dioxide and also nitrogen dioxide, which can be harmful to health. An air-source heat pump issues no carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, or any other kind of gas. It uses a small amount of electricity to transfer a large amount of heat: the electricity may be from a renewable source, or it may be generated from power stations that burn fossil fuel.
An air-source heat pump designed specifically for very cold climates can extract useful heat from ambient air as cold −30 °C (−22 °F). Manufacturers include Mitsubishi and Fujitsu. One Mitsubishi model provides heat at −35 °C, but the coefficient of performance (COP) drops to 0.9, indicating that resistance heating would be more efficient at that temperature. At −30 °C, the COP is 1.1, according to the manufacturer's data (the manufacturer's marketing literature also claims a minimum COP of 1.4 and performance to −30 °C). Although air-source heat pumps are less efficient than well-installed ground source heat pumps in cold conditions, air-source heat pumps have lower initial costs and may be the most economic or practical choice.
A study by Natural Resources Canada found that cold climate air-source heat pumps (CC-ASHPs) work in Canadian winters, based on testing in Ottawa (Ontario) in late December 2012 to early January 2013 using a ducted CC-ASHP. (The report does not explicitly state whether backup heat sources should be considered for temperatures below −30 °C. The record low for Ottawa is −36 °C.) The CC-ASHP provided 60% energy savings compared to natural gas (in energy units). When considering energy efficiency in electricity generation, however, more energy would be used with the CC-ASHP, relative to natural gas heating, in provinces or territories (Alberta, Nova Scotia, and the Northwest Territories) where coal-fired generation was the predominant method of electricity generation. (The energy savings in Saskatchewan were marginal. Other provinces use primarily hydroelectric and/or nuclear generation.) Despite the significant energy savings relative to gas in provinces not relying primarily on coal, the higher cost of electricity relative to natural gas (using 2012 retail prices in Ottawa, Ontario) made natural gas the less expensive energy source. (The report did not calculate the cost of operation in the province of Quebec, which has lower electricity rates, nor did it show the impact of time of use electricity rates.) The study found that in Ottawa a CC-ASHP cost 124% more to operate than the natural gas system. However, in areas where natural gas is not available to homeowners, 59% of energy cost savings can be realized relative to heating with fuel oil. The report noted that about 1 million residences in Canada (8%) are still heated with fuel oil. The report shows 54% energy cost savings for CC-ASHPs relative to electric baseboard resistance heating. Based on these savings, the report showed a five-year payback for converting from either fuel oil or electric baseboard resistance heating to a CC-ASHP.
Air source heat pumps can last for over 20 years with low maintenance requirements. There are numerous heat pumps from the 1970s and 1980s in the United States that are still in service in 2012even in places where winters are extremely cold. Few moving parts reduce maintenance requirements. However, the outdoor heat exchanger and fan must be kept free from leaves and debris. Heat pumps have more moving parts than an equivalent electric resistance heater or fuel burning heater. Ground source heat pumps have fewer moving parts than air source heat pumps as they do not need fans or defrosting mechanisms and are located indoors. The ground array for a ground source installation should last for over 100 years.
Air source heat pump is our life simpler and more convenient, has become an indispensable electrical appliance in our life. Its widespread use has helped many people in extreme weather. It not only regulates temperature but also provides hot water, making it a better presence than air conditioning. If you are in all-in-one heat pump and air source heat pumps business, you can consider our cost-effective products.